FACULTY RESEARCHERS 2019-2020
The NASA Nebraska Space Grant is excited to highlight our innovative faculty research projects this year. For 2018 projects, click here.
ANTIMICROBIAL 3D PRINTED MEDICAL DEVICES FOR ASTRONAUTS
Dr. Jorge Zuniga, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Department of Biomechanics
Abstract: The reported immune dysfunction of astronauts in space and the viral antibiotic resistance during spaceflights suggest the critical need of developing preventive countermeasures for the manufacturing of medical devices associated with high bacterial load. The objective of the current proposal is to develop new antimicrobial polymers and copolymers compatible with the Additive Manufacturing Facility at the International Space Station for the development of medical devices in space.
Aim 1: Develop three new antimicrobial 3D printing polymers and copolymers containing a biocidal copper-based nanocomposite that are flexible, durable and biocompatible.
Aim 2: Perform ground testing of new materials using a replica of the Additive Manufacturing Facility at the International Space Station.
Aim 3: Development and post-extrusion assessment of the antimicrobial effectiveness, longevity, and mechanically characterization of 3D printed medical devices, including a finger orthosis and a basic surgical kit.
How the proposed work will reduce a NASA high priority risk?:
Previous investigations have demonstrated that the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain resulted enhanced antibiotic resistance in microgravity-analogue conditions suggesting potential alterations in antibiotic efficacy during long-duration spaceflights missions. Given that medical conditions will occur during human long duration spaceflight missions, there is a possibility of adverse health outcomes & decrements in performance during these missions. The current proposal has the potential to reduce NASA Human Research Program’s risks of highest priority for long duration spaceﬂight missions (also known as the “red risks”). Specifically, “The Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Inflight Medical Conditions” for deep space journeys and long flight missions. Thus, there is a critical need for preventive countermeasures to mitigate microbial risks during space flight missions. The current proposal has the potential of revolutionize patient care of crewmembers. Potential applications of antibacterial 3D printing materials are not limited to only medical devices, but any other non-medical object critical to the crewmembers, such as sound protection panels. Medical devices containing microbial eliminating properties can potentially reduce the need for sterilization techniques that require additional transportation space increasing the overall logistic burden to conserved space. The unprecedented accessibility of 3D printing technology and the implementation of antibacterial 3D printing filament to manufacture medical devices is not only critical during spaceflight missions, but has a promising potential to a wide range of clinical applications on earth and on the civilian populations revolutionizing patient care.
ANTIMICROBIAL SPACECRAFT SURFACES USING FEMTOSECOND LASER SURFACE PROCESSING FOR PLANETARY PROTECTION
Dr. Craig Zuhlke, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
In compliance with the Committee on Space Research Planetary Protection policy, NASA monitors the total microbial burden of spacecraft as a means for minimizing forward contamination. For missions to other planets, such as Mars and Europa (a moon of Jupiter), it is important to reduce the overall microbial bioburden to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Significant effort is spent by NASA on ensuring that spacecraft component are completely sterile before deployment, including frequent resterilization of components during assembly. In work with NASA Johnson Space Center, it has been demonstrated that femtosecond laser surface processing can be used to make antimicrobial silver surfaces that are being explored for use in the next generation of condensing heat exchangers for the International Space Station. This Space Grant project will explore the use of of femtosecond laser surface processing to make antimicrobial aluminum surfaces that can be used for spacecraft components.
ELEMENTARY EDUCATOR SCIENCE ENRICHMENT WORKSHOP SERIES
Dr. Amanda Roe, College of St. Mary, Department of Biology
The overriding goal of the workshop series is to stimulate interest in STEM by increasing the number of activity and inquiry-based learning experiences children receive during primary education. This program will provide face to face workshops for elementary teachers of STEM, and will build on community-requested educator professional development. Overall, our workshops will provide teachers with authentic STEM experiences which will enable them to increase and improve STEM experiences in their classrooms while allowing the teachers to earn higher education credit. Each of these goals and projected outcomes directly supports the NASA Education Implementation Plan, 2015-2017 (Electronically Enhanced Edition, January 2016).
MENTORING HIGH PERFORMANCE STUDENTS INTO ADVANCED TOPICS IN MATHEMATICS AND UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Dr. Griff Elder, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Department of Mathematics
The project identifies exceptionally strong students, whose needs are not sufficiently addressed in their current classroom, and mentors these students through introductory courses into advanced topics in theoretical mathematics.
The proposal hires a GTA to support three activities that each supports high-level achievement for a different population:
(1) A Thursday problem solving session.
(2) A Friday problem solving session.
(3) Advanced Topics in Algebra: Algebraic Number Theory.
(1) The Thursday session supports high school teachers taking graduate classes; upper-level UNO double majors
taking our most advanced courses; and a few high school students who are interested in advanced problem solving.
(2) The Friday sessions recruit 1st and 2nd year UNO students, engage them in advanced problem solving, and develop a social culture.
(3) Advanced Topics challenge UNO students with PhD-level topics.
UNL CONFERENCE FOR UNDERGRADUATE WOMEN IN PHYSICAL SCIENCES (WoPhyS)
Dr. Rebecca Y. Lai, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Chemistry
The University of Nebraska-Lincoln is bringing together outstanding student researchers for the 2019 Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physical Sciences, to be held on the UNL campus Thursday, November 7 through Saturday, November 9, 2019. Undergraduate students in all physical science disciplines are invited to take part in this unique opportunity to expand upon their current research experiences. Keynote talks will feature scientists who are leaders in their fields, highlighting progress in materials science and related fields. Participants will be able to present their research results to their peers during invited talks and poster sessions. Social activities and special sessions will provide time to share experiences with other students, to obtain advice about pursuing careers in the physical sciences, and to visit laboratories on campus.
UNDERSTANDING THE MUSCULAR RESPONSE TO EXERCISE DURING SPACE EXPLORATION
Dr. Hafizur Rahman, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Department of Biomechanics
Muscle atrophy is a common problem for astronauts while traveling and stationed at the International Space Station (ISS) due to the microgravity environment. Although several specific exercise countermeasure devices (i.e. weighted treadmill, advanced resistive exercise device) have been developed, astronauts still experience significant deficits in muscle function upon returning to earth. The contribution of these countermeasures to muscle function and muscular responses is not well understood. The proposed research project will implement musculoskeletal computational modeling and simulation to investigate how exercise countermeasures impact muscle function by quantifying the typical muscular force response to exercise. Understanding how muscle function improves following supervised cardiovascular exercise is fundamental knowledge necessary to guide the exercise countermeasures recommendations for astronauts on ISS.
COMPLIANT JOINT TECHNOLOGY FOR ROBOTICS
Dr. Carl Nelson, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
This project is focused on developing and experimentally validating a new type of mechanical joint for use in robotics. The joint design allows simple and low-cost construction and is based on rolling contact without sliding (i.e., low friction). Special types of mechanical structures can be created with this new joint, for example, mimicking the motion of a ball and socket joint. The construction is also inherently human-safe so that robots and people can work alongside each other safely. The project includes prototyping and testing.
3D PRINTING OF ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS
Dr. Bai Cui, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
The research goal of this project is to develop the novel laser 3D printing processes to fabricate structures using advanced ceramic materials such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, SiC and their composites for space applications. The current 3D printing techniques of ceramic materials, such as binder jetting and inkjet printing, can induce low density and many defects (such as pores and cracks), resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The novelty of this proposal is to develop new laser 3D printing processes, which use the high laser energy to sinter ceramic powders directly for the 3D printing of ceramic parts with a high density, fewer defects, and higher mechanical properties.
The education goal of this project is to train graduate and undergraduate students from underrepresented minority groups to pursue their career in STEM areas.
MANIPULATING NONLINEAR ABSORBERS TO ENHANCE VIBRATION SUPPRESSION IN ULTRA-HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO WINGS
Dr. Keegan Moore, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
The overall efficiency and performance of commercial airliners must increase to meet growing public demands for reduced environmental impact. One approach targeted by NASA is to enhance the aerodynamic performance of current aircraft designs using ultra-high-aspect-ratio (UHAR) wings. However, the increase in aerodynamic performance gained by UHAR wings is often offset by significant increases in the amplitudes of vibration that the wing experiences during flight. This research will develop a broadband vibration mitigation strategy for UHAR wings by manipulating nonlinear absorbers to dissipate energy at multiple frequencies. A model UHAR wing will be studied experimentally, the proposed solution will be designed based on the measured data, and its effectiveness will be verified experimentally. The resulting research will be disseminated through local and national conferences, a journal publication, and through a planned visit to NASA Langley Research Center.
ESTIMATING ACTIVITY AND OOCYST-SHEDDING OF T. GONDII-INFECTED DOMESTIC CATS ON PUBLIC LAND
Dr. Bruce Chase, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Department of Biology
The parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes Toxoplasmosis, a leading cause of food-borne illness and death. Acute infection can be lethal, while chronic infection impacts risk-averse and exploratory behavior. Although T. gondii reproduces sexually only in felid intestines, we don’t know how it affects cat behavior. Addressing this in domestic cats is essential, as their large number impacts parasite spread in natural settings. Parasite spread is also influenced by climate, as warmth and humidity determine the infectivity of oocytes shed in cat feces. We will use remote sensing devices that upload data to the NASA-funded Movebank database to ask whether cats who became infected through natural means alter their behavior and also determine how long they shed oocysts. In collaboration with NASA partners, the data gathered using this minimally invasive, animal-mobility paradigm will be used to develop geospatial models of parasite spread and identify infected animals by their behavior.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEAMWORK AND COMMUNICATION ACROSS MULTIPLE TIMEPOINTS
Dr. Philip Lai, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Department of Communication Disorders
This project investigates how groups work together at multiple time points observing how teamwork and communication develops over time. These groups will consist of three individuals and teams will be assigned based on personality, sociability, and temperament to observe whether a specific trait or style is optimal when working together in teams. The proposed activity focuses on the psychosocial adaptation within a team fits nicely with the goals of the Human Exploration and Operations (HEO) division at NASA. This project stems from prior research done on crew members coming back from the International Space Station and furthers explores how crew members communicate in teams. An effective exchange of information is key to keeping humans safe and lowers the chances of a breakdown in communication. This longitudinal study will assess how teams develop as they operate in a non-optimal working environment, working on multiple task varying on different levels of difficulties.
ROBOTIC ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE FOR PLANETARY APPLICATIONS
Dr. Eric Markvicka, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Smart Materials & Robotics Lab
Robotic artificial muscles that mimic biological systems exhibit large power-to-weight ratios, inherent compliance, and large range of motion and offer many advantages over conventional rigid actuators (e.g. electric motor) without complicated drive transmissions or complex linkages. While existing robotic artificial muscles show great promise for earth-based applications, most are not suitable for planetary applications due to the high volatility of the soft, rubbery materials that the muscles are made from. This project will develop a new artificial muscle architecture using space-grade materials, providing a new method to achieve low-cost, lightweight actuation for planetary applications. Such actuators would provide a path towards NASA’s vision of in-space robotic manufacturing and assembly to create a robust space infrastructure, enabling more frequent science and discovery missions and increased scientific return.
POOL BOILING WITH ALUMINUM MINI-CHANNELS FOR THERMAL MANAGEMENT IN NASA APPLICATIONS
Dr. George Gogos, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
Heat removal from vital components and device weight are often limiting factors when it comes to space exploration. Critical components typically require cooling systems to sustain operation in the harsh environments common in space. Advancements in cooling systems will provide the ability for longer exploration, less device maintenance, compact instruments, and more efficient cooling. Femtosecond laser surface processing is a promising surface modification technique that has been shown to dramatically increase heat transfer on a variety of metals such as stainless steel and Inconel. This unique surface processing technique will be further examined with aluminum which has the benefits of being both light in weight and high in thermal conductivity. These two properties, coupled with optimized surface modification parameters, would offer vast improvements to existing two-phase cooling systems for space applications.
CONFERENCE TRAVEL TO WE19 FOR SOCIETY OF WOMEN ENGINEERS STUDENTS
Dr. Christine Wittich, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Department of Civil Engineering
This project provided the opportunity for students members of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's chapter of Society of Women Engineers (SWE) to attend the national SWE conference. This conference will provide professional development for female engineering students, which aligns with NASA's goal to build a diverse STEM workforce.
MODERNIZATION OF INVENTION & INNOVATION IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION; DEVELOPING EDUCATION EFFICACY IN K-12 EDUCATORS
Dr. Derrick Nero, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Department of Teacher Education
Invention & Innovation in Engineering Education (IIEE) is a project that aligns closely with goals of the NASA Office of STEM Engagement in that it will provide in-service K-12 STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) educators knowledge, skills, and experience in conceptualizing, implementing, and assessing project-based learning experiences for K-12 students utilizing an engineering design process and scientific experimentation consistent with NASA educational contexts. IIEE will be offered to in-service educators who are UNO College of Education graduate students with an interest in STEM Education. Upon completion of IIEE, graduate candidates will be prepared to offer content-specific, career-relevant learning experiences in STEM to their students, guidance to peers, and outreach to their communities.
ENGAGING UNDERGRADUTES IN NEAR-SPACE EXPERIMENTATION (EUiNSE)
Dr. Derrick Nero, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Department of Teacher Education
Engaging Undergraduates in Near-Space Experimentation (EUiNSE) is a project that aligns closely with goals of the NASA Office of Education in that it will provide first- and second-year undergraduates an immersive introduction to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) concepts and their applications through near-space experimentation consistent with NASA educational contexts. The Scientific Method and Systems Engineering will be central to students’ experiences and work. EUiNSE is an general education Natural & Physical Science offering for all undergraduate majors. Upon completion of EUiNSE, students will be prepared to actively engage in other general education Natural & Physical Science requirements and/or STEM-related courses within their respective undergraduate majors.